Trimeresurus gracilis

Taiwan Mountain Pitviper


保育等級: 保育類 (第三級)


蝮蛇科;Crotalinae 亞科(蝮亞科)
Viperidae; subfamily Crotalinae (Pitvipers)
60 cm
全台2000 m以上高海拔區域。少見。
Small snake; total length up to 60 cm. There are 15-27 (19-21 at mid-body) rows of scales, which are keeled and rough, except for the first or second scale rows. Head is broad, roughly triangular, covered with small scales, and distinct from neck; body is stout or robust; tail is small. There is a prominent angular ridge from upper eye to end of nose, and a prominent pit between eye and nostril. Eye is medium-sized, high on head, forms slight bulge on upper head. Iris is light brown to tan dappled with dark pigment which blends with color of head, and there may be a horizontal brown to brown-black band of diffuse pigment across middle of eye, which in line with dark brown band posterior to eye. Pupil is vertically elliptical, black, with narrow, indistinct margin of white. Tongue is dark gray to black, with stem lighter than fork tips. Fangs are large, movable, in sheath in anterior part of upper jaw. Upper head is brown to dark brown, with designs of darker brown of varying intensities; there is a dark band extending from eye to corner of mouth which is bordered by stripes of whitish or light brown. Sides of head are dirty white to tan, or white and mosaiced with black. Upper body is light brown to red brown with many designs or shades of chocolate to brown black; there is a mid-dorsal series of dark designs, and a lateral one on each side which tends to be in line with the mid-dorsal one. The dark designs may or may not have narrow whitish margins. Some individuals may bear white small dots on tail. Ventral head is dirty white to tan and may be shaded by varying quantities of scattered black pigment. Ventral body is dirty white to light brown, gradually darker toward posterior part of body; it is conspicuously mottled with diffuse black to red brown spots, which may be square and arranged roughly as a checkerboard or form moderately broad irregular longitudinal lines along sides. Anal scale is entire, and subcaudals are paired.
蝮亞科蛇類日夜皆有可能出現,喜歡隱藏在碎石堆或箭竹林底下。牠捕食兩棲類、蜥蜴與小型哺乳動物維生。在春夏季交配,母蛇於夏末到秋季產下 2-8 條幼蛇。初生幼蛇吻肛長約 17cm。雄蛇性成熟虛耗時2年,雌蛇則需要3年之久。毒液含有出血性毒素,被螫咬的傷口會腫脹。
Trimeresurus: 意思是"有三節尾巴的" (Gotch, A.F. 1986. Reptiles - Their Latin Names Explained. - Blandford Press. 176 pp.);
gracilis: 來自拉丁語 "細瘦、苗條"之意。