Sinomicrurus macclellandi swinhoei

MacClelland's Coral Snake


保育等級: 保育類 (第二級)


蝙蝠蛇科,Elapinae 亞科
Elapidae, subfamily Elapinae
98 cm
罕見蛇種。分部台灣全島海拔 1000 公尺以下。
Small snake; total length up to 98 cm. There are 13 rows of scales, which are smooth, glossy, iridescent. Head is broad oval and not distinct from the neck; body is slim, round; tail is short and ends in a chitinized point. Eye is medium-sized; iris is dark gray to black, indistinct since it blends with surrounding dark area of head, and pupil is circular and black. There are no loreals. Tongue is red to flesh-colored, with red stem and diffuse brown fork tips. Fangs are small, rigid, in anterior part of upper jaw. Upper head is distinctly marked with broad cream to white band across head behind eyes, and is brown-black to black anteriorly posteriorly while snout is whitish. Upper body and tail are red to rusty brown, with scales flecked with diffuse dark brown or black. There are a series of narrow, black, light-edged cross bands, some incomplete on the flanks. Ventral head is white to very light gray, mental and chin shields may have dark spots. Ventral body and tail are cream to light gray with black designs, irregular in size and in shape. Anal scale is divided and subcaudals are paired.
Sinomicrurus 是一種屬於有毒的 elapids 底下的種名,例如 珊瑚蛇(Oriental) 和 東方珊瑚蛇 (Eastern Coral Snakes), 在台灣有三個特有種:羽鳥氏帶紋赤蛇(S. hatori), 梭德氏帶紋赤蛇(S. sauteri) 以及環紋赤蛇 (S. macclellandi)。
環紋赤蛇通常是為夜間出沒,可是白天也有機率出現在陰影區的卵生蛇類。喜歡棲息在山區林木底層、石縫與腐植堆中。侵略性不強,只有極少數的記載有出現過攻擊行為;但是牠的毒液含有強烈的神經毒素,所以仍然有致命的危險性。由於資料不足,所以幾乎沒有人了解牠的生活習性。不過可以猜測牠的主食是蜥蜴與小型蛇類。另外在遭受威脅時,牠會舉起牠尖尖的尾巴戳刺威脅者。母蛇於夏季產下 4 - 14 枚卵。
Sinomicrurus 是一個的複合組合詞,Sin是來自拉丁語 "中國的", mikros 是來自希臘語意思是"小的",ura 則是 "尾巴" 描述牠尖銳而短小的尾巴。
macclellandi: 來自一個兼通醫生與自然學家的英國人 Sir John McClelland
swinhoei : 來自英國的自然學家同時也是收藏家與歐洲第一位在台領事 Robert Swinhoe
In The phylogenetic relationships of Asian coral snakes (Elapidae: Calliophis and Maticora) based on morphological and molecular characters (Herpetologica 57: 233-245), Slowinski, J.B., J. Boundy & R. Lawson "analysed the phylogeny of oriental coral snakes (together with New World coral snakes) by means of both morphological characters and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The generic classification of these snakes has been subject to confusion and controversy for some time, with some species being assigned to the genus Hemibungarus, but without much robust evidence (see comments on Elapidae 1999 page). The present study identified three main evolutionary groupings within Oriental coral snakes, which the authors recognise as distinct genera:
(i) Calliophis, a tropical Asian genus including the species C. beddomei, C. bibroni, C. gracilis, C. maculiceps, C. melanurus, C. nigrescens, C. intestinalis and C. bivirgatus. Note that Maticora is treated as a synonym of Calliophis.
(ii) Hemibungarus, which contains the single Philippine species H. calligaster.
(iii) Sinomicrurus, a new genus, which contains a series of subtropical species: S. hatori, S. japonicus, S. kelloggi, S. macclellandi and S. sauteri. Both molecular and morphological studies support the hypothesis that this assemblage constitutes the sister group to the New World coral snakes.
(i) Calliophis - 分屬在熱帶的種類包含C. beddomei, C. bibroni, C. gracilis, C. maculiceps, C. melanurus, C. nigrescens, C. intestinalis C. bivirgatus.
(ii) Hemibungarus - 目前只有菲律賓有一種H. calligaster。
(iii) Sinomicrurus - 是一個新確立的新屬包含了一系列亞熱帶的種類:S. hatori, S. japonicus, S. kelloggi, S. macclellandi and S. sauteri.在生物分子學和生物型態學上的研究支持了這個新世界珊瑚蛇的種類確立。