OLIGODON FORMOSANUS

Taiwan Kukri Snake

赤背松柏根

保育等級: 非保育類

無毒

 

相關影片

赤背松柏根短影剪輯 

 

鄉野調查 ----

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

家族

黃頷蛇科, Lycodontinae 亞種

Colubridae, subfamily Lycodontinae

 

最大體長 95 cm

 

台灣棲地分布

分布台灣全島、蘭嶼海拔一千公尺以下。

 

世界棲地分布

南中國(福建,廣東,廣西,江西,江蘇,貴州,海南,浙江),台灣,越南。

 

外觀描述

Small snake; total length up to 95 cm. There are 15-19 (19 at mid-body) rows of scales, which are smooth. It has a short, indistinct head bearing a large rostral shield; body is moderately stout and tail is medium stout. Eye is medium-sized; iris is dirty white to dappled gray with scattered black pigment and pupil is round, black, with narrow ring of cream to yellow. Tongue is flesh-colored, with fork tips darker than stem due to scattered black pigment. Upper head is gray brown mottled with symmetrical designs which include 1) a dark-brown stripe passing from the front of head, through eye, to the supralabial, 2) a less clear and discontinuous dark-brown stripe extending from outer margin of the parietal to base of jaw, with some median designs on the frontals, and 3) a forward pointing dark-brown chevron at back of head. The labials are lighter in color. Upper body is varied in color, including orange, brown, grey, and dark brown; there is a dark salmon, vermilion, or light-colored stripe along vertebral line where many faint to medium dark brown, irregular crosslines may be broken. Ventral head is white to light gray. Ventral body is light gray to pink with scattered irregular gray or medium brown gray designs varying in size; there are semicircular or pyramidal designs with base on posterior margin and in outer fields of ventral scales. Underside of tail is variable in color, frequently tinted with pink or salmon. Ventral body is pink in juveniles while the dorsal designs are less distinct. Anal scale is entire, and subcaudals are paired.

 

生態描述

此蛇擁有後溝牙(見注示(1),為喜歡棲息在山區地帶與低地森林的夜型性蛇類。牠專吃各種爬蟲類的蛋維生,偶爾也會對自己生的蛋下手。牠特化的上頷齒有著大而窄扁的形狀,可以迅速的割破嵌入革質蛋殼進而取食。母蛇在夏季產下每窩 3-6 枚的卵。通常剛出生的幼蛇約有 13cm 長。

"通常蛇類吃鳥蛋都是整個吞入,然後再整個粉碎。但是赤背松柏根不一樣,牠是以大而窄扁的特化上頷齒快速在革質蛋殼上切割畫痕,最後才嵌入蛋殼內並且吸食其中的蛋黃。牠有效的將上頷骨可伸展的弧度利用到極限,再使用鋒利的特化上頷齒來回的畫弧切割直到蛋殼上出現深刻的畫痕為止。畫弧切割的過程利用下顎平舉蛋殼面,並且將上顎頷骨延展成弓型再施力接觸與收縮". (Source)

赤背松柏根有著與牠學名(kukri snake)上一樣鋒利如刀的牙齒,形狀類似著名的尼泊爾的廓爾喀士兵所持有的刀 (kukri dagger) 。 防禦的時候,這些牙齒有著非常可怕的功效,會造成出血性的撕裂傷口。不過也有傳言是蛇的唾液中含有抗凝血的成分在內

當遭受威脅或不安時,赤背松柏根會使出一招小把戲 - 將尾部捲起成扁螺旋狀吸引敵人力避免頭部遭受攻擊。 可點此參考這項調查

 

學名與俗名

Oligodon: oligos 是來自希臘語,意思是 "很少, 稀少"; odont 則是指"牙齒";

formosanus是拉丁語"from Formosa (來自台灣的意思)".

赤背松柏根、台灣豹紋蛇、花秤桿、台灣小頭蛇。

 

附註

有關赤背松柏根和蘭嶼石龍子吃後代的文章 - Bizarre cannibalistic behavior by skinks in reaction to predation by O. formosanus

 

附註

 (1) "Opisthoglyphous"(有後溝牙的蛇)指的是上顎後方進化出增大的牙齒方便更穩固的咬住獵物的蛇種,類似無溝槽(無毒牙)的蛇類,但是有微毒。後溝牙會隨著蛇嘴的閉合而斜上向上顎方向收入溝槽,並不會垂直往下導致戳傷自己。白話一點又稱 "rear-fanged snakes". (Source)

 

相關連結

Reptile Database

Wikispecies

翻譯:周信甫

HOME

Site copyright 2009-2010 Hans Breuer & William Christopher Murphy

   All images on this site are copyright of their respective owners and may only be used with their permission